Saturday, March 14, 2020
Defining the Advantages and Disadvantages Cultural Similarities in the Context of the Recruitment Process The WritePass Journal
Defining the Advantages and Disadvantages Cultural Similarities in the Context of the Recruitment Process Introduction Defining the Advantages and Disadvantages Cultural Similarities in the Context of the Recruitment Process ). This literature review will contribute to informing current knowledge on advantages and disadvantages of cultural similarities within the candidate evaluation process. Questions addressed will include: does cultural matching really matter in the hiring process, and is it worthwhile dismissing a highly skilled and innovative candidate for not satisfying the criteria around cultural fit. Defining the context of this area of research Culture is increasingly becoming the peripheral for occupational sorting. This has been driven by the popular view that organisations with employees that fully embrace the culture find it easy to navigate through tough economic times (Cubik 2013). Contrary to the popular view, does cultural matching really matter in the hiring process? Is it worthwhile dismissing a highly skilled and innovative candidate for not satisfying the criteria around cultural fit? Exploring this topic is important considering the recent Ã¢â¬Ëskill gapÃ¢â¬â¢ crippling engineering firms. In the UK, there is currently a shortfall in most areas of graduate recruitment. According to the Confederation of British Industry, the national shortage in graduate recruitment in many areas especially engineering sector may put a brake on economic recovery (Paton 2014). Tens of thousands of engineers are retiring without graduates to replace them (Osborne 2013). Many organisations across the globe are yet to put in place means to measuring cultural fit in their recruitment and selection process (Cubik 2014).Ã It is time to re-examine the advantages and disadvantages of such cultural matching. Such an objective assessment will act as a wakeup call for managers and HR professionals to critically review their recruitment processes and ascertain whether conformity to mainstream organisational culture gives the best outcome. Past literature has provided a useful case study which considers elite professional service firms. It was suggested that an often untested hypothesis within this field is how similarities which exist culturally and can be reflected in shared experiences, preferences, individual characteristics or even presentation of self (Bourdieu, 1984). Additionally, that these cultural similarities which are at interplay between employers and those applying for jobs are crucial in determining the employers hiring decision. It is posed that hiring as a process has many more intricacies than just a basic recognition and sorting of skills; rather, a complex process exists which incorporates the cultural matchingÃ of potential employees between those who apply for jobs, those who evaluate and the companies who hire them. Past literature indicates that employers seek out those perspective employees who are competent and importantly seem to possess cultural similarities. It was uncovered that culture similarities were of upmost concern to employers, often overriding concerns solely surrounding productivity (Rivera, 2012). Considerations relating to the advantages and disadvantages of the cultural role in determining how employers hire Processes are evident which are interpersonal in nature and apparent in evaluating cultural similarities to determine candidate evaluation. These processes empirically demonstrate how cultural similarities predict hiring within the workforce. The process of hiring an employee is a very influential and powerful determinant in influencing outcomes of the labour market. The protocol for hiring practice is a mechanism which can be the cornerstone in facilitating employment opportunities for some, while disabling for others. Hiring is crucial in order to prosper or excel in most occupations and advance in income brackets, therefore, considering the intricacies of hiring are important to understand social closure or opposing economic stratification (Elliot and Smith, 2004). The hiring process between employers and employees is typically interpreted as a matching process which exists to filter organisational characteristics, with the job requirements, and perceived skill of the job candidate (Tilly Tilly, 1998). Previous literature has summarised how employersÃ¢â¬â¢ hiring decisions as based on: evaluating the potential employee on what has been described as human capital, for example their hard or soft skills and attributes; secondly their potential for social capital, represented by their social connections; and finally in evaluating their demographic characteristics (Pager Shepherd, 2008). Moreover, research is recognising that gaps exist in our current knowledge on the processes of hiring. It should be noted that when human capital, social capital, demographic traits are all accounted for in understanding how employers hire, there remains unexplained variance. Consequently, investigating how employers carry out their decision making is an area wh ich needs to be informed in the literature (Heckman and Siegelman, 1993). Much of this unexplained variance could be implicated in methodological and data limitations. A majority of the existing literature in this area is quantitative in nature and places focus on the type of individuals in the application process or comparisons between pre and post hiring, leaving the decision making process unexplained (Fernandez Fernandez, 2006). Furthermore, constraints are evident in keeping to assessing what is easy to access or observe by using information which is quite often extracted from records of employment. Thus it is clear that in order to fully understand the hiring process, decision-making is an important factor to investigate, to distinguish between how employers evaluate, make comparisons and select new employees. By further investigating this decision making process it is hoped that more subtle factors will be revealed to explain employersÃ¢â¬â¢ decisions in relation to the outcomes of hiring (Gross, 2009). The Role of Culture Previous investigations into how the employer selects employees have predominantly focused on individual characteristics, the organisational context, or factors within the institution (Pager Shepherd, 2008). Perhaps, however this process of employment incorporates more than the context of candidates, or companies and recruitment should be recognised as an interpersonal process. Overall, within most industries the main components of an interview for a job are key determinants of success or failure in hiring. Job candidates create impressions of themselves within the interview situation and this impacts upon the likelihood of them getting hired, it has even been posed that this carries more weight than their qualification achievements (Graves Powell, 1995). However even with this knowledge, within the literature focus often reflects pre or post factors regards hiring. Therefore it is apparent that focus should be placed on interpreting the dimensions which represent the interpersonal nature of the recruitment process (Roscigno, 2007;Ã Stainback et al., 2010). Within a micro-social setting existing literature describes dynamics which are interpersonal and has concluded that similarities are one of the most substantial indicators in determining how an individual is evaluated and how desirable they are to an employer (Byrne, 1971) and this has been confirmed within an interview setting (Huffcutt, 2011). Research in this area has previously examined gender or race similarities, and in addition similarities in tastes, life experiences, leisure activities, or self-presentation which can greatly impact interpersonal attraction and therefore stratification (Lareau and Weininger, 2003;Ã Wimmer Lewis, 2010). Upon a first meeting, typically people seek out shared commonalities which could be in knowledge, an experience, or personal interests (Gigone Hastie, 1993). It is through uncovering these similarities that people connect emotionally and this then facilitates a trusting and comforting environment, creating excitement, and building bonds bet ween individuals (Collins, 2004;Ã DiMaggio, 1987; Erickson 1996). Within psychology there is a well-known hypothesis which poses similarity creates attraction (Byrne, 1971) and similarly within sociology what is known as the Ã¢â¬ËhomophilyÃ¢â¬â¢ principle (Lazarsfeld Merton, 1954) also infers that similarities culturally promote attraction. However, it should be noted that having similar cultural identities equates to more than simply having shared interests. It is posed that cultural identity importantly determines our evaluation strategy (DiMaggio, 1987;Ã Lamont Molnar, 2002). Past literature,Ã (Weber, 1946), concluded that having the same interest in things like leisure pursuits, or similar experiences, presentation style, and other life factors create membership within certain groups and are fundamental in determining an individual being included in a desirable opportunity. Very specifically, Weber indicated that lifestyle factors are cornerstone in estimating status within group reproduction and social closure. In weighing up the advantages and disadvantages of hiring and the role culture plays, even if this is unconscious, cultural similarities may be greatly at play during the evaluation process and be a determinant of rewards. A classic study in this research area was based on interviews in a college between counsellors and students within the community (Erickson Schultz, 1981). It was reported that similarities which were established within this relationship were the most crucial determinants in shaping the councillors view about a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s potential and future success. Even within the presence of co-membership, the most important indicator seemed to be perceived similarities in experience. Moving on form this, more recent literature (Lamont, 2009)Ã implicated that within academia research proposals were favoured for academic fellowships when the proposal was similar to the interests of that particular scholar who was evaluating the applicant. These types of selection bias ha ve many important implications, are inclusive of access to resources as well as social rewards, and also in predicting long term trajectories within an educational, social or economic setting (DiMaggio Mohr, 1985). Much literature is apparent which has been based on examining culture with stratification and this is disproportionate due to its focus on the educational setting (Stevens, Armstrong Arum, 2008). Apparent limitations are evident in examining cultural similarities post-graduation. An important area of research clearly appears to be to determine outcomes for students who have gained similar qualifications in the process of applying for jobs within the labour market. A good example to illustrate this phenomenon could be to further investigate the hiring process within the power of stratifying through shared cultural similarities. Understanding the advantages and disadvantages of cultural similarities could further be explained by assessing if students gain financial reward through cultural similarities and this would be recognised through the attainment of a desirable job and matching salary. Useful research would investigate the advantages of cultural similarities and if this translat es economically (Bourdieu, 1986) within the labour force, this hypothesis has been neglected within empirical literature (Bills, 2003). Furthermore it is known that the qualities upon which we make our assessments are generally not context specific (Lamont, 1992), therefore it cannot be representative that culture similarities are identical, perhaps in both a classroom and interview situation. Within cultural research there has been a lack of systematic assessment in relation to hiring, and in contrast to this those who academically assess hiring may have previously under-theorised the role of culture. Overall a majority of hiring research in a sociological setting has examined the process of employers evaluating their prospective employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ hard skills and specifically cognitive skills. Whereas those papers that have explored non-cognitive skills will most likely focus on things that will impact upon productivity and include soft skills (Farkas, 2003). A disadvantage in this field of research is how cultural contexts and lifestyle have been classed as non-productive entities and therefore under studied in an empirical setting (Tilly Tilly, 1998). On the other hand, an advantage in this particular area of research has been that investigations which have examined the employment process, have recognised that similarities are an important predictor of candidate employment however, this research has previously been limited by focusing on gender or ethnicity (Gorman, 2005). This may be explained partly by limited data on informative information as it is not always an easy task to capture similarities on underlying tastes or lifestyle factors, and if this information has been obtained then it is somewhat difficult to quantify (Stevens, 2008). Moreover, within empirical literature it is common to use similarities which are demographic in nature when estimating shared culture. It should be clear that both culture and a set structure are mutually reinforcing entities, whereas an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s gender or ethnicity can greatly impact their cultural identity (Sewell, 1992; Swidler, 1986). It would be advantageous to examine the varia tion represented by individual values, experience or beliefs and common behaviour among unique demographic culture (Lamont Small, 2008). Thus, in order to gain a true and reflective picture of a cultural hiring prospective, research must consider demographics as well as cultural similarities and life experiences between those who are hiring and potential employees (Turco, 2010). Research exists which has made the assumption that gender and ethnic similarities override any other shared common experiences. These ethnic and gender similarities should be recognised as being greatly influential attributes in determining interpersonal attraction and likelihood of a positive evaluation. Continuing research in this area has confirmedÃ a hypothesis which was outlined by Tajfel and TurnerÃ¢â¬â¢s (1986)Ã suggesting that in and out group preferences can vary. Importantly, more current literature has revealed that demographics can moderate preferences in a within group setting (Ely, 1995). When examining the hiring process, gender and ethnic similarities between those hiring and potential job candidates have produced inconsistencies in effect (Huffcutt, 2011). Conclusion To clarify, previous literature efforts should be made to investigate a range of similarities which incorporate more than gender and ethnicity with their impact on the labour market (Castilla, 2011).Ã The current literature review has presented a review of the literature in this area and it can be concluded that it would be advantageous to assess the relationships between interpersonal characteristics and how people are evaluated based on their shared cultural attributes. From the current literature it can be perceived that shared characteristics are important in a variety of contexts however it is also clear that identifying cultural similarities in the context of employment success would be an especially useful and important piece of research. In psychology it has been shown that between those who perceive themselves as similar, this can actually impact and control the effects of attraction and similarity. Subjectively believing that an individual shares similarities with you on multiple dimensions within a unique context may be a crucial determinant in dis-entangling our understanding of interpersonal attraction (Tajfel and Turner, 1986). Subjective impressions of perceived similarities may be most influential within an interaction which is personalised, run over an increased duration of time and based on identifying additional information to what is visible (Montoya, Horton Kirchner 2008), this is apt in the setting of a job interview. Previous literature has indicated that having perceived similarities are possibly more important than true similarities on the overall decision within the employment process (Graves Powell, 1995). Shared culture is imperative to consider if we want to fully understand how perceived similarities operate (Lamont Molnar, 2002). In spite of this information and within sociological research the process of hiring has usually overseen shared culture in determining how employers are influenced. Some literature does exist which recognises the importance of cultural similarities and has been seen in a qualitative study by Neckerman Kirschenman (1991). Here, in relation to urban employers it was hypothesised that cultural similarities predict employersÃ¢â¬â¢ decisions. DiMaggio (1992) was responsible for labelling recruitment as a Ã¢â¬Ëcultural matchingÃ¢â¬â¢ process. In spite of knowing that cultural similarities are influential predictors of job success (Turco, 2010), cultural factors have typically been excluded or overlooked and deemed as not productive or observable in past research (Pager, Western Bonikowski, 2009). A number of authors have emphasised the importance conformity to mainstream organizational culture when making hiring decisions. For example, in their study on the impact of organisational culture on human resource practices, Omotayo Anthonia (2013) argued that the congruence between individual values and organisational culture was crucial in the recruitment and selection process. They argued that it helped reduce absenteeism and turnover, and that it increased employee morale and satisfaction leading to increased productivity and better performance. In a similar vein, Silverthorne (2004) argues that employees who are better fit to the organisational culture are more likely to experience higher job satisfaction and become more committed to the organisation. However, to some extent these arguments are debatable; it is not necessarily true that cultural matching in recruitment and selection leads to the best outcome. There is a greater tendency for HR managers to hire people that they think are similar to them rather than hiring those who are objectively good at their job (Booth, 2002). A phenomenal candidate who would have taken the company to another level can be missed out just because he/she could not satisfy the criteria around cultural fit (Marcel et al., 2013). Moreover, a considerable amount of bias in talent acquisition may result when invoking cultural matching. What is the likelihood of missing out on innovative perspectives is an important consideration for future research (Marcel et al., 2013). For the purpose of this literature review, systematic and empirical literature has been presented to understand the advantages and disadvantages of cultural characteristics in determining job success. References Blau, P. M., Duncan, O. D. (1967). The American occupational structure. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgement of taste. Harvard University Press. Byrne, D. E. (1971). The attraction paradigm (Vol. 11). Academic Pr. Collins, R. (2004). Interaction ritual chains. Princeton university press. DiMaggio, P. (1987). Classification in art. American sociological review, 440-455. DiMaggio, P., Mohr, J. (1985). Cultural capital, educational attainment, and marital selection. American journal of sociology, 1231-1261. Elliott, J. R., Smith, R. A. (2004). Race, gender, and workplace power. American Sociological Review, 69(3), 365-386. Ely, R. J. (1995). The power in demography: Womens social constructions of gender identity at work. Academy of Management journal, 38(3), 589-634. Erickson, B. H. (1996). Culture, class, and connections. American journal of Sociology, 217-251. Erickson, F., Shultz, J. (1982). The counselor as gatekeeper: Social interaction in interviews. New York: Academic Press. Farkas, G. (2003). Cognitive skills and noncognitive traits and behaviors in stratification processes. Annual Review of Sociology, 541-562. Fernandez, R. M., Fernandez-Mateo, I. (2006). Networks, race, and hiring. American Sociological Review, 71(1), 42-71. Gigone, D., Hastie, R. (1993). The common knowledge effect: Information sharing and group judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(5), 959. Gorman, E. H. (2005). Gender stereotypes, same-gender preferences, and organizational variation in the hiring of women: Evidence from law firms. American Sociological Review, 70(4), 702-728. Graves, L. M., Powell, G. N. (1995). The effect of sex similarity on recruitersevaluations of actual applicants: a test of the similarityÃ¢â¬ attraction paradigm. Personnel Psychology, 48(1), 85-98. Gross, N. (2009). A pragmatist theory of social mechanisms. American Sociological Review, 74(3), 358-379. Heckman, J. J., Siegelman, P. (1993). The Urban Institute audit studies: Their methods and findings. Huffcutt, A. I. (2011). An empirical review of the employment interview construct literature. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 19(1), 62-81. Kotter, E. H. and Heskett, O. K..(1992). Ã¢â¬ËCulture: The Missing Concept in Organizational StudiesÃ¢â¬â¢. Administrative Science Quarterly, 4(2), 229-240. Lamont, M. (1992). Money, morals, and manners: The culture of the French and the American upper-middle class. University of Chicago Press. Lamont, M., Molnr, V. (2002). The study of boundaries in the social sciences. Annual review of sociology, 167-195. Lamont, M., Small, M. L. (2008). How culture matters: Enriching our understanding of poverty. The colors of poverty: Why racial and ethnic disparities persist, 76-102. Langfeldt, L. (2011). How Professors Think: Inside the Curious World of Academic Judgment. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 25(1), 92-95. Lareau, A. (2011). Unequal childhoods: Class, race, and family life. Univ of California Press. Lareau, A., Weininger, E. B. (2003). Cultural capital in educational research: A critical assessment. Theory and society, 32(5-6), 567-606. Madu, B.C.(2012). Ã¢â¬ËOrganizational culture as a drive of competitive advantageÃ¢â¬â¢. Journal of Academic and Business Ethics, Vol. 5, pp. 1-9. Marcel, M.F., Roeske, J., and Parrilla, R.(2013).Bias and cultural competence in recruitment and selection. Multicultural Forum on Workforce Diversity, Language Culture Worldwide, LLC. Martins, E. C., and Terblanche, F.(2003). Ã¢â¬ËBuilding Organizational Culture that Stimulates Creativity and InnovationÃ¢â¬â¢. European Journal of Innovation and Management, Vol. 1(1), pp.30-43. Montoya, R. M., Horton, R. S., Kirchner, J. (2008). Is actual similarity necessary for attraction? A meta-analysis of actual and perceived similarity. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 25(6), 889-922. Neckerman, K. M., Kirschenman, J. (1991). Hiring strategies, racial bias, and inner-city workers. Social Problems, 433-447. Oliver, P.(2003)Writing Up Your Thesis. Oaks, CA. Sage Publications. Omotayo, O. and Anthonia, A.(2013). Ã¢â¬ËImpact of organizational culture on human resource practices: a study of selected Nigerian private universitiesÃ¢â¬â¢. Journal of Competitiveness, vol.5, No. 4, pp. 115-133. Osborne, A.(2013). Shortage of engineers is hurting Britain, says James Dyson. The Telegraph. [viewed on 4th July 2014] available from telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/industry/engineering/10287555/Shortage-of-engineers-is-hurting-Britain-says-James-Dyson.html Pager, D., Shepherd, H. (2008). The sociology of discrimination: Racial discrimination in employment, housing, credit, and consumer markets. Annual review of sociology, 34, 181. Pager, D., Western, B., Bonikowski, B. (2009). Discrimination in a Low-Wage Labor Market A Field Experiment. American Sociological Review, 74(5), 777-799. Partington, D. E.(2002).Essential Skills for Management Research: Oaks, CA:Sage Publications, ISBN 07619 70088. Paton, G.(2014). STEM Awards: business facing major skills shortage. The Telegraph. [viewed on 4th July 2014] available from telegraph.co.uk/science/science-news/10696388/STEM-Awards-businesses-facing-major-skills-shortage.html Rivera, L. A. (2012). Hiring as cultural matching the case of elite professional service firms. American Sociological Review, 77(6), 999-1022. Roscigno, V. J. (2007). The face of discrimination: How race and gender impact work and home lives. Rowman Littlefield Publishers. Saunders, M., Lewis, P., and Thornhill, A.(2012).Research Methods for Business Students.(Sixth Edition), New Jersey, FT Prentice Hall. Schneider, B. and Smith, D. B.(2004). Ã¢â¬ËPersonality and Organizational CultureÃ¢â¬â¢. In: B. Scheneider D. B. Smith (Eds.), Personality and Organization. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Sewell Jr, W. H. (1992). A theory of structure: Duality, agency, and transformation. American journal of sociology, 1-29. Sheridan, J.E.(1992). Ã¢â¬ËOrganizational culture and employee retentionÃ¢â¬â¢. The Academy of Management Journal, vol. 35 (5), pp.1036-1056. Stainback, K., Tomaskovic-Devey, D., Skaggs, S. (2010). Organizational approaches to inequality: Inertia, relative power, and environments. Sociology, 36(1), 225. Stevens, M. L., Armstrong, E. A., Arum, R. (2008). Sieve, incubator, temple, hub: Empirical and theoretical advances in the sociology of higher education. Annu. Rev. Sociol, 34, 127-151. Swidler, A. (1986). Culture in action: Symbols and strategies. American sociological review, 273-286. Tilly, C., Tilly, C. (1998). Work under capitalism (p. p205). Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Turco, C. J. (2010). Cultural Foundations of Tokenism Evidence from the Leveraged Buyout Industry. American sociological review, 75(6), 894-913. Watt, B., Busine, M. and Wienker, E.(2005).Recruiting for culture fit: are you getting values from your selection activities. Australia, Development Dimensions International Inc. Weber, M. (1946). Class, status, party (pp. 180-95). na. Wilson, J.(2010).Essentials of Business Research, Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Wimmer, A., Lewis, K. (2010). Beyond and Below Racial Homophily: ERG Models of a Friendship Network Documented on Facebook1. American Journal of Sociology, 116(2), 583-642.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
WestMercia Notebooks Ltd - Essay Example As and when such orders come, the company can deliver it immediately. Notebooks prepared on order, generally carry the name of the college, institute, corporate house etc. who is ordering it. When WestMercia starts keeping some minimum stock of readymade notebooks, carrying the name of the company, it is bound to help the company in establishing a brand identity. An entity is something that is supposed to have a distinct, separate existence and identity. In this category, generally we take person, place, thing, event, or concept, about which information is to be stored. WestMercia Notebooks mainly has the following entities; Entity Life History (ELH) analyses the life cycle of the entities in the WestMercia Notebooks Ltd. ELH diagram also includes sequencing, iteration or timing of events in the system. It also investigates the integrity requirements and successor actions relevant for each entity, the administration of the entity, and the deletion of the entity. ELH is thus used to define the rules and regulations determining the life cycle of the entities and how do we perform actions like insert, update, and delete. ELH Diagram for 'Notebook': Event-1: The Customer i.e. college/ institution/ retailer/ wholesaler approaches the company with the specification of the notebook. Event-2: After WestMercia Notebooks Ltd. receives the orders, it starts processing it with the help of different departments Event-3: The production department makes the notebooks with appropriate specifications and sends them for being delivered to the customer. Event-4: The notebook is distributed amongst students, employees by the colleges or institutions and sold by retailers and wholesalers. Students and employees in turn use the notebooks and thus the notebook completes its useful life. ELH Diagram for 'Order': Event-1: Marketing team starts negotiations on the order. Negotiations take place regarding order size, prices, expected time of delivery etc. Such negotiations also often involve some discounts, if the customer has been a regular one for the company, with good payment record. Event-2: Once the negotiations are over, a consolidated order is prepared, with details like terms of payments, advances, discounts etc. Event-3: The production department starts working on the order, places order for raw material and once the notebooks are ready, sends it across to the dispatch sections for packaging and delivery. Event-4: The account department takes a look at the payment position, and accordingly gives a go ahead to the dispatch department for sending it across to the customer. Thus the order is completed within couple of days or weeks, depending upon the order
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
Cornish Villages 4G Trial - Essay Example It is the aim of the Government to establish the best superfast broadband network in Europe by 2015 (BIS, 2010), and to meet the EC target for all citizens to have access to basic level of broadband of 2 Mbps by 2013 (EC, 2010). The wireless technology is envisioned to best benefit the Ã¢â¬ËnotspotsÃ¢â¬â¢, or internet blackspots that cannot be reached by the traditional fibre-optic cable networks, since the 4G network relies on satellite dishes and the mobile phone network (McDonnell, 2011). The following discussion shall treat on the technical aspects, the social and user background, and the legal and policy frameworks that support and impact upon the UK broadband connectivity project. 2. Technical Background 4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards in the telecommunications industry, next to the 2G and 3G technologies. What the technology comprises exactly is difficult to define, and for a long time before the true 4G technology existed, its forerunners (LTE & WiMAX) were marketed as 4G. For instance, 4G has been described Ã¢â¬Ëas having peak speed requirementsÃ¢â¬ ¦ at 100 Mpbs for high mobility communication (such as from trains and cars) and 1 Gbps for low mobility communication (such as pedestrians and stationary users,Ã¢â¬â¢ which definition, however, has been observed to applying to two technologies in particular. The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) stated that the term 4G may also apply to its forerunners (LTE & WiMAX) and evolved 3G (HSPA+), which enabled said technologies to advertise themselves as 4G (Broadband Expert, 2011). Most of the networks that currently support 4G capability are backed by LTE (referring to Long Term Evolution) technology, particularly in the US and being introduced in the UK. This technology is theoretically rated to have a maximum download speed of 300 Mbps and top upload speed of 75 Mbps. In the US where LTE networks are in use, however, one can realistically expect download s peed to be within 6 and 12 Mbps due to simultaneous user traffic. The other technology, WiMAX, is currently used by US carrier Sprint and others, but is not planned to be used in the UK. According to Sprint, WiMAX is capable of real world download speed of between 3 and 6 Mbps. WiMax has a theoretical top download speed of 128 Mbps and 56 Mbps for upload speed (Broadband Expert, 2011). HSPA+, the evolved 3G which now markets as 4G technology, presents itself as a quick and easy, cost-effective near term solution for upgrading presently existing 3G networks. It is much slower than LTE, with theoretical top download speed of 21 Mbps and realistic speeds from 2 Mbps to 4 Mbps (Broadband Expert, 2011). More recently, the advanced versions of WiMAX and LTE have emerged in the market, which both have theoretical capability of 1 Gbps download (ISPreview, 2011). As implied by the differences between theoretical and real world speeds, nearly all broadband services suffer from highly variable speeds. The current range of download speed in the UK is between 1 and 2 Mbps. There are several advantages, in present-day 4G broadband technology, though. Ã¢â¬ËMobile Broadband is often described as being the only real alternative to fixed line services because it has the advantage of being both affordable and widely available, from almost anywhere, to a significant portion of the UK populationÃ¢â¬â¢
Friday, January 31, 2020
The challenges of globalisation Essay Next offers an international delivery service to all there online customers this could be challenging for next to because if they give international customers an estimated delivery of their products they are completely relying on their curriers, and if the product does not arrive on the day that next said It would then next could get a bad reputation and bad reviews this will have a negative impact on the company and will discourage customers from buying online this means that next will see a decrease in sales. Availability Since Next went global there has been a huge increase in demand for next products this makes it hard for next to have all of their products available to everyone all the time, in fact it would be impossible so certain people will be forced to wait a long time for the product they want. However as long as next can make their products available to the majority of customers then they will not lose customers. Laws and regulations Laws and regulations would prevent Next from sending items such as lighters, sharp objects and electrical this could narrow the products that next have available for sale in other countries. Other laws that next may face are the import tax that they will have to pay on importing goods to and from countries. Language Language could be a barrier for some companies that want to globalise themselves, however for next a company which is such a big concern, their websites are available in every language that they sell in, this makes it easy for customers from abroad to purchase whatever they please from the next website. Customs Customs can be huge problems for companies. it could be problem for Next because when shipping long distance of the items could be delayed and this could impact the customers delivery date, this could give Next a bad reputation and have an impact on sales. Tax Tax will have a huge effect on next because every country has different tax rates the UK tax rate for value added tax is 20% and SpainÃ¢â¬â¢s 36.3% this means it is more expensive for consumers in spin to purchase next goods. Currency payments/security of payments Cultural sensitivity Next have customers all over the world, this could be a problem to Next because some of the items that they sell in UK stores may not be available in countries such as Dubai. Why is this? Certain laws and regulation will deter Next from selling goods that they know are much less likely to sell in certain geographic locations such as Dubai. In short DubaiÃ¢â¬â¢s culture frowns upon revealing clothes for example, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s dresses with low necklines which would be perfectly acceptable in the UK, would be going against culture and even breaking laws in Dubai so it would make no sense for next to mass advertise this product however in the UK the dress could be a huge success and make next lots of money. In contrast there will be a minority of people that want the dress in foreign countries this can create a dilemma for next because the majority of shoppers worldwide would admit to switching shop if they cannot find the product they want or need. Keeping up with trends in other countries It is a challenge to keep up with trends in one country, however next has to keep up trends in over 70 countries, it is challenging because trends can change on a monthly or even weekly basis, so next cannot simply sell one range of clothing in every country because every country will have different demands so they must tailor their stock to there diffrerent target markets abroad.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
An experiment to find out how changing the concentration of acid :: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation
An experiment to find out how changing the concentration of acid affects the rate of reaction Planning Aim: I am to find out how changing the concentration of the hydrochloric acid (HCL) affects the rate of reaction. The hydrochloric acid will be reacting with marble chips (small, medium, large). During my experiment I will be changing one variable. This will be the concentration of the acid. I will use the concentration of HCL from 0.5 molar/dm3 to 3.0 molar/dm3. I will use 3grams of marble chips for every size of chip. By doing this I will find out if the rate of reaction is quicker or slower using a different concentration of acid. The equation I will be using is: CaCO3 (s) + 2HCl (aq) CaCl2 (aq) + H20 (l) + CO2 (g) Calcium Hydrochloric Calcium Water Carbon Carbonate Acid Chloride Dioxide Method Firstly I must get the correct equipment and assemble it safely and correctly. To do this I will fill a water tray half full with water. Then I will collect 3g medium chips. I will measure 30cm3 of hydrochloric acid. I will connect the delivery tube to the measuring cylinder which is turned over which will be full with water. This is shown on my diagram. I will begin timing using a stopwatch and record the results every 10 seconds for 1 minute. I will use 0.5molar/dm3 to 3.0molar/dm3 of hydrochloric acid and record 3 sets of results and then I will take an average. Fair Test In order to make my experiment safe I will change only one thing. I will be changing the concentration of the acid. Everything else will remain the same through out the experiment. I will use the same equipment and do the experiment during the same lesson where I can. This can be important because room temperature can increase the rate of reaction. The temperature could be higher on a certain day and affect my results. Background Information Rates of Reaction * Increasing the temperature increases the rate of a chemical reaction. * Some chemical reactions are fast and others are slow. A fast reaction could be a rocket exploding, and a slow reaction is metal rusting. * Rates of reaction can be measured by finding out how quickly a product is formed or how quickly a reactant is used up. * Examples of measuring reaction rates include measurement of the volume of gas formed, and measurement of the loss in mass when a gas is given off. How does surface area affect a chemical reaction? If one of the reactants is a solid, the surface area of the solid will
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Few deer live to be more than five years old because of hunting, vehicle accidents and predators. Deer are preyed upon by, wolves, bobcats, bears, coyotes, and humans. Deer hunting is the activity or sport of pursuing or chasing deer. It dates back to tens of thousands of years ago. Approximately one hundred people die in hunting accidents in the United States each year. Therefore, hunting deer is unsuccessful, unfair, pointless, unsafe, and should only be done if the deer will be eaten.Hunting can be very unnecessary especially when sport hunting. Studies show that 11 percent of deer who had been killed by hunters died only after being shot two or more times and that some wounded deer suffered for more than 15 minutes before fully passing away (Ã¢â¬Å"Why Sport Hunting Is Cruel and UnnecessaryÃ¢â¬ , par. 3). It causes the deer to go through great pain and suffering for no very urgent reason and for the sake of mere amusement. It may make you feel stronger, but there is still no re ason to kill innocent deer.What if you were that deer that had to go through all this misery just for your unintelligent, and sickening mistake? In addition, sport hunting causes destroyed properties and injured bystanders. In 2006, former Vice President Dick Cheney accidently shot a close friend while hunting quail on a canned hunting preserve. According to the Hunter Education Association, there are more than dozens and hundreds of deaths caused by hunting in the United States each year. Yet alone those number of deaths are deaths of humans (Ã¢â¬Å"Why hunting is Unnecessary 2Ã¢â¬ par. 16).This is an ongoing problem that we have to stop. Hunters seem to be unfamiliar with their firearms and do not have a sufficient amount of respect for the damage that they can do. Deer hunting can also be ineffective in more than one way. It is unsuccessful for trying to solve human/deer conflicts. Studies show that throughout hunting season hunters frighten the deer out of the woods and onto t he road increasing the number of car/deer collisions (Lin, Doris, par. 10). People should not bother trying to kill deer if the result would be winding up in a huge mess.If the deer goes onto the street then most likely both the deer and human would die or be seriously injured. Think about all that happened or would happen when going to hunt that deer down . The main reason that deer hunting is ineffective is because they believe that it helps with controlling the deer population. It really depends because if trophy hunting the deer then you would most likely kill the strong male deer or bucks. That wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t help at all because the female deer are the ones who breed (Roos, Dave, par. ). Do not do anything violent or brainless if not urgently necessary in the situation. When extraordinary natural occurrences cause overpopulation, natural processes should work there way back to even out the group. Even though starvation and disease may be two of the tragic ways they may stabili ze although it happens naturally (Ã¢â¬Å"Why Sport Hunting Is Cruel and UnnecessaryÃ¢â¬ par. 9). Shooting deer because he or she might become sick or starve is unreasonable and is destructive.Those who support deer hunting believe that killing them stops all the problems that the deer cause. When hunting deer you will remove a few deer and prevent those from reproducing and prevent the deer from causing chaos on the street (Lin, Doris, and par. 5). Therefore the outcome will be less harmed people in car accidents. However, that is unnecessary because that means the other deer will have more food for themselves. Also, they would not have to fight other deer for food. Since they would have more food, they would be able to give more births to twins and triplets.That also means that the deer will normalize and give birth to fewer fawns when food is scarce (Lin, Doris, par. 10). Before going to hunt those poor creatures maybe you should think to yourself Ã¢â¬Å"Why kill these deer? Ã¢â ¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Is there a reasonable reason? Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If so, is there better ways to solve this? Ã¢â¬ There is a better way to solve this, you can let the deer regulate themselves it might be painful but it is life. Killing does not resolve anything at all. It just makes the situation worse. People who believe killing deer helps, sad for you studies show it does not.Hunting deer is meaningless and disastrous in overpopulation and unjust to those who suffer. When citizens do this every single deer counts and will affect the future. Ã¢â¬Å"In which way will it affect the future? Ã¢â¬ It is not known at the moment all that is known is that we may still have the chance to make a difference in this struggling world that we live in today. However, if this continues without help from you, then believe it or not but deer will become endangered species, or worse extinct.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Norms and Values Associated With the Sexual Orientation of the People Free Essay Example, 1000 words
This research tells that the norms determined by the theorists and authorities with regard to sexual freedom maintain that since sexuality concentrates upon the taste and preference of the individuals, and defines the innate as well as ascribed and learnt characteristics, no one should be forced to observe alterations in his sexual orientation out of threats or fears of persecutions at the hands of the state or society. The government or political authorities should devise the laws that could provide complete shelter to the individuals in respect of leading the life of their choice provided their activities are not having any interference into the life of other members of society. Sometimes, we as human beings may not enjoy the luxury of dictating our own sexuality, since, from the going, it is majorly shaped by external factors; the environment, our culture, religious beliefs among others. Byne is of the view that several factors interact in aligning an individual to a particular s exual orientation. Sometimes, being a society of laws, constitutions, and of course leaders (political and religious), we charge these higher bodies with providing us with directions and line if action. We will write a custom essay sample on Norms and Values Associated With the Sexual Orientation of the People or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page